LocalGovt. Research working Papers[Abstract/1st chapters]


The words Read the Manual on a book cover offering instructions, help and advice for a project or task you must learn and complete Stock Photo - 17515450 LocalGovt. Research working  Papers[


1 Boosting Internally Generated Revenue of Local
Governments in  Nigeria [Ogun state LGs as case studies]

2 LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION & DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA------by Olisa Agbakoba SAN & Hilary Ogbonna
(A Capacity Building Manual)


3  Local Government Administration and the Challenges of Rural Development in Nigeria

4  LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOCALITIES IN NIGERIA: ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

5  Repositioning the Local Government System for Sustainable Development through Constitution Review”
TEXT OF LECTURE DELIVERED BY HIS EXCELLENCY, SENATOR IKE EKWEREMADU CFR,


6 LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY: A STUDY OF SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN NIGERIA

7 LG AUTONOMY IN NIGERIA ; A HISTORICAL PERAPECTIVE.

8 LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA: ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARD

9 Project Planning and Implementation at the Local Government
Level: Lessons of Experience.


10 LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION, POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA .

11 Fiscal planning and local government
administration in Nigeria: The quest for sustainable rural development.
12 Local government autonomy and effectiveness in Nigeria

13    Local Governments in Nigeria: Relevance and Effectiveness in Poverty Reduction and Economic Development

14
THE ROLE OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ATTAINMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

15 Developing Alternative Sources of Funding Local Governments in Nigeria during Period of Global Economic Recession


16 Efficient Financial Management for Local
Governments: The Nigerian Experience
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[Abstract/1st chapters]



1 Boosting Internally Generated Revenue of Local
Governments in Ogun State, Nigeria
(A Study of selected Local Governments in Ogun State)†
Olusola, Olubukunola. O
Abstract
For there to be a local government, it must be ready and be seen to be able to meet its obligations
through internal sources. However this is far from what is obtained in practice as this study
would show that for selected local governments understudied, they were unable to generate 10%
of internal revenue, hence the gross dependence on statutory allocations from the federation
account. This study had been carried out to see the impact these internal sources has on the total
revenue. Problems, efforts for better and effective revenue generation will be identified. The
study population consists of all the twenty (20) local governments in Ogun State. The sample
size was three (3) local governments. The local governments were randomly selected by
balloting and data were sourced from Annual Financial Statements (AFS) of each local
government chosen for the study. The study is limited to a period of 6 years (2000-2005). The
ordinary least square method was adopted using the multiple regression analysis and panel data
regression method to test the fixed and random effects and test for level of significance at 1%. It
was found out that rates, fines, fees and licenses, rent sources of revenue are significant factors
influencing internally generated revenue of local governments in Ogun State.
Keywords: Internally Generated Revenue (IGR), Annual Financial Statements (AFS), Local
Governments (LGs), Total Internally Generated Revenue

 
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2 LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION & DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA------by Olisa Agbakoba SAN & Hilary Ogbonna

(A Capacity Building Manual)

This is a training manual for local government administrators, community based organizations, NGOs, activists and policy makers, interested in improving good governance on the local level in Nigeria. The objectives of this manual are (1) to enable local government administrators to appreciate their roles as developmental agents and to enable them harness the various resources at their disposal to bring about meaningful grassroots development; (2) to help various interest groups and grassroots constituencies reach an understanding of issues in local government administration; (3) to assist political actors, community organizations and grassroots people in the context of their dealings with the local government; and (4) to help every stakeholder to develop action plans for the local government in their respective areas. The manual is intended to be used as training material for seminars and workshops, as a reference guide as well as advocacy material in public enlightenment and discourses.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Part 1 EVOLUTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

Origin and Forms of Local Governments

Part 2 GOVERNANCE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

Good Governance in Local Governments Administration .
Local Government Financing , Budgeting in Local Governments.

Part 3 CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE
Civil Society Participation in Local Government Administration

Part 4 LOCAL GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT
Local Governance and Development

APPENDIX: Function of a Local Government Council Fourth Schedule to the 1999 Constitution.

 
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Local Government Administration and the Challenges of Rural Development in Nigeria
Abstract
Rural development of the grassroots has been the concern of every responsible and responsive political system. This is because development and participation have continued to elude people of the grassroots. Development remains insignificant if it does not positively affect the lives of those in the periphery of decision making arrangement. The Nigerian state therefore created local government as the third tier of government whose objective is to ensure effective, measurable and efficient service delivery to the people. Local government is faced with various difficulties. The major concern of this paper is to dwell on these difficulties and illuminates the factors that are responsible for them. In achieving this, the paper relies on descriptive approach and unstructured interview. It concludes that problems of local government are multifarious in nature and the solutions for them should be adequate and practical in order to evolve viable and development-oriented third tier of government.

Key words: grassroots, political system, autonomy, third tier, participation, development, uniformity, unity, culture, diversity, interference, national integration, performance, consciousness, concept, commitment, democracy, inefficiency, corruption, decentralisation.


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4 LOCAL GOVERNMENT AUTONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LOCALITIES IN NIGERIA: ISSUES, PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

J. E. IMHANLAHIMI AND M. O. IKEANYIBE
(Received 15, January 2008; Revision Accepted 26, June 2009)
ABSTRACT
The topical issue of local government (LG) autonomy in Nigeria in relation to the development of
the localities, the raison d’etre of LGs, has been examined in this paper. Proceeding from theoretical
framework and conceptualizations for clearer understanding, the paper discusses some dominant
autonomy issues. These include representative LGs, the size of LGs, revenue, and personnel. The
paper found that inadequate handling of virtually all the above issues has posed some challenges for
LGs’ developmental efforts in the localities. Inadequate autonomy has been found to be the
independent variable in the challenges. Other challenges include inadequate finances, weak
intergovernmental relations, fledging democracy and grand corruption. These must be adequately
tackled for LGs to make more positive impact in the localities. Some pertinent recommendations are as
follows. LGs need adequate autonomy, hard work rather than verbal institutionalization, democratic
consolidation, reduced corruption, increased discipline and application of the rule of law.

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5 Repositioning the Local Government System for Sustainable Development through Constitution Review”
TEXT OF LECTURE DELIVERED BY HIS EXCELLENCY, SENATOR IKE EKWEREMADU CFR, DEPUTY SENATE PRESIDENT, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA AT A SEMINAR ON “REPOSITIONING LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ADMINISTRATION TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF VISION 20-20-20” ORGANISED BY THE ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF NIGERIA (ALGON) AND THE OFFICE OF THE SGF ON 6TH JULY 2009 AT THE SHEHU MUSA YAR’ADUA CENTRE, ABUJA
“Repositioning the Local Government System for Sustainable Development through Constitution Review”

Protocol
Introduction

I am indeed happy and count it an honour and great opportunity to brainstorm with this gathering of important stakeholders in our quest for sustainable national development.
Though the invitation to this seminar and request to deliver this lecture was at a relative short notice, I did not hesitate to honour the invitation in person for so many reasons. I place premium on the local government system, being the closest tier of government to the people and a very critical factor in national development and the realization of the Vision 20-20-20. Importantly too, the local government system and the grassroots remain the genesis and cornerstone of my political career. So, for me, this event is a great reunion, having served as the Chairman of the Aninri Local Government Area of Enugu State. This seminar is an uncommon opportunity for me to share ideas with my colleagues from the hindsight of a road trod before and of one who had once won the shoe and knows where it hurts.



As an active player in the quest for the amendment of the 1999 Constitution since the 5th Senate and the Chairman of the present National Assembly Joint Committee on Constitution Review, I total subscribe to inclusiveness, participation, and consultation as indispensable elements of an acceptable, effective, and credible review of the 1999 Constitution. In fact, this is my second lecture on the constitution amendment in a space of about one month. On the 4th of June, I shared ideas with other critical stakeholders in the Nigerian project and the constitution review at the 2nd Alumni Homecoming of the Faculty of Law, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus vide a lecture entitled “10 Years of Democracy and the Quest for the Amendment of the 1999 Constitution”.


Therefore, before I proceed, I wish to appreciate the Association of Local Governments of Nigeria, ALGON and the Office of the Secretary to the Government of the Federation for their thoughtfulness in putting this seminar together to enrich discourses in topical development challenges facing the local government system and to build the capacity of these key players for better governance and administration of the local councils towards the achievement of Vision 20-20-20. This event, coming on the heels of Nigeria’s unprecedented 10 uninterrupted years of democracy, is a clear appreciation of the fact that democracy is not an end in itself, but a means which can best be sustained through good governance and practical improvement on the lives of our citizens. Incidentally, an overwhelming majority of our citizens live in the rural areas. Therefore, I count this seminar as indicative of a popular commitment to better the lots of a majority of Nigerians and by so doing consolidate our democracy.



I was given the freedom to frame the topic of this presentation around the seminar theme vis-à-vis the constitution review. My choice of this topic is underlined by the fact that the local government system could do much better if it is constitutionally and positively repositioned to deliver on its mandate. And I believe the ongoing process of the 1999 Constitution amendment presents yet another opportunity to reform and strengthen the local government system to be more effective and efficient in contributing to grassroots and national development. Constitutionally well restructured, empowered and well administered local governments are catalysts for sustainable national development. I believe that Vision 20-20-20 can succeed better if local governments are empowered to key in optimally to the vision. I will thus strive to highlight several vital facets of the subject–matter to help engender as well as widen discourse in our quest for a more utilitarian local government system through constitution-making and democracy in Nigeria.

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6 LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY: A STUDY OF SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN NIGERIA

ABUBAKAR, USMAN (Ph.D)
Department of Local Government and Development Studies
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
Kaduna State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT
Arising from the dissatisfaction expressed by many nations with centralised approaches to
local service delivery, a large number of these countries have resorted to decentralising
responsibility to lower level elected governments for their provision. This study provides the
findings of a field survey carried out in three states from the North-west, South- East and
South- Western parts of Nigeria. From these states, three local government areas each: one
urban, semi urban and rural were surveyed with respondents comprising of the chairman, six
heads of departments and five councillors each from the local governments (9 number) and
the civil society comprising traders and market women association, traditional rulers, a
retired civil servants, the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT), National Union of Local
Government Employees (NULGE) and The Youth Association from each of the 9 local
governments surveyed. Questionnaire and interviews were conducted and the responses were
correlated and cross tabulated using the SPSS software. The result indicates a very weak
relationship between local government (decentralisation) as operational in Nigeria and
service delivery. Reasons for this development such as limited autonomy, high level
government interferences among others were highlighted and suggestions proffered to help
strengthen local governments in service provision.
Keywords: Local government, Decentralization and Service delivery

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7 LG AUTONOMY IN NIGERIA A HISTORICAL PERAPECTIVE

INTRODUCTION

The aim of this paper is to examine the nature

ofomy, the Local Government auton its strength

and inherent contradictions in achieving the

objectives of local government system in Nigeria.

In doing this, it will be relevant to engage in a bit

of theorizing and conceptualization of the terms

local government and autonomy from different

view points. This will enable us generate a greater

power of analysis, as we observe that most of

the handed down tools, models, theories and

approaches from the West are of little utility to

the changing conditions of developing democracies.

This exercise will not in any way assume to

have exhausted all the various definitions given

by scholars and leading practitioners as to what

local government and autonomy connote. But

our choice of definition will be those that are of

relevance to the contemporary Nigerian local

government system.

At this point, it is conceived that any serious

discussion on the present local government autonomy

has to touch on our socio-economic and

political circumstances. Thus our values, sentiments

and prejudices could not escape intruding

as we make the premise as well as suggest

measures for transforming Nigerian local

government system.


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8 LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA: ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARD

AKHAKPE IGHODALO
Department of Public Administration
Lagos State University, Ojo Lagos
+2348037222867, ighoakha@yahoo.com
&
KOLAWOLE SOLA
Department of Industrial Relations and Personnel Management
Lagos State University, Ojo Lagos
+2348035753243, iokolly@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Local government administration is widely regarded as government closest to the people of the grassroot.
It performs vital functions such as: political education, mobilization of the people for popular participation
in governance, vehicle for political accountability, among others. The struggle to bring about a local
government system in Nigeria has been a long drawn one. Efforts have geared towards moving the system
from local administration to local government with functional political and economic autonomy. Yet, local
government administration is confronted with issues and challenges such as: federal and state
government’s interventions in the constitutional apportioned responsibilities of local government. The
paper argues that for local government administration to realize its lofty goals, the country should return to
true federalism, enthrone positive leadership, pursuit of economic self-reliance through internally
generated revenue, and embrace attitudinal and behavioural changes to achieve good governance.
Keywords: Local Government, Democracy, Reforms and Governance.



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9 Project Planning and Implementation at the Local Government
Level: Lessons of Experience

Jimoh A. Oladipo
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business and Social Sciences
University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
E-mail: oladipoui@yahoo.com
Tel: +2348033781008
Abstract
Events of the second war and its aftermath have succeeded not only in making the concept
of development a necessity objective but also in identifying the appropriate investment for
implementing development projects. The advocacy for decentralization measures as an allcheck
against concentrating power in any one particular organization finds relevance in the
instrumentality of local governments in planning and implementing projects to address the
issues of poverty, unemployment and inequality. For developing countries such as Nigeria,
however, targeted outcomes have remained largely unachieved as projects at the local level
have shown profound incapability in contributing to development of local areas. The
problem of corruption, social instability and ethnic divisions has continued to increasingly
rear its ugly head. The author’s 26 years experience as a technocrat in public project
planning has therefore come in handy in looking back at all activities relating to project
planning and implementation under three major areas viz: 1. chronicling the process 2.
examining all institutional and administrative apparatus put in place and 3. identifying
problems and constraints hampering effectiveness in project planning and implementation.
Although several factors are discovered to contribute to the failure of local government
projects in making appreciable impacts, the most serious ones have to do with institutional
instability and policies working at cross purposes. The paper identifies six policy areas in
rectifying the failings.
Keywords: Project Planning and Implementation, Local Government, Decentralisation,
Social and Economic Development, Goals and Objectives



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10
LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION, POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
 
Samuel C. Ugoh
Department of Political Science, University of Lagos, Lagos
 
 
Abstract
Absolute poverty has to do with living below whatever is defined as poverty line based on per capita income or consumption of individuals or households in a country. The local government system is set up, at least in part, to help curtail the prevalence of poverty. The paper is aimed at an evaluation of to what extent this objective is being pursued and addressed by Nigerian local governments as units of political administration, known as the third tier of government, next to the state and federal levels in that order. The study identified a whole gamut of factors militating against local governments contributing as they should to the issue of poverty alleviation.
 
Keywords: Poverty; development; local government; alleviation.


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11

Fiscal planning and local government administration in Nigeria: The quest for sustainable rural development
 
Samihah Khalil and Salihu Abdulwaheed Adelabu*
 
Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government, College of Law, Government and International Studies, Northern University of Malaysia, 06010, UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Adelabusalihu21@gmail.com.
Accepted 7 October, 2011

 Abstract

The raison d’etre of a local government is to collect its revenue efficiently and to use that revenue to provide infrastructural development for its tax payers. Local government as the third tier of government cannot, therefore be ideal from the financial view lens if it collects its revenue in a slip-shod manner and devotes a large percentage of it to the maintenance of a top- heavy administrative set-up, with a relatively small proportion of the revenue left for the provision of infrastructural development which are of direct benefits to the local inhabitants. The purpose of this paper is to critically examine local government accountability in respect of budget and budgeting system in order to improve sustainable development at the local level. The paper tries to study the main source of revenue of local governments in Nigeria, and determine how the resources are utilized to deliver infrastructural development to the people. Also, information on budget and budgeting of Irepo local government is analyzed in the study. There are 774 local governments in Nigeria. This research study covers  33 local governments in terms of disbursement of statutory allocation, and Irepo local government in terms of budget and budgeting analysis.  As far back as 1999, the Nigerian local governments are being given enough by the Federal Government in order to provide infrastructural development to the citizens in the local area, but it seems the said public revenue are being mismanaged by political leaders and local governments’ officials in Nigeria. The findings of this paper revealed that < 5% of the statutory allocation accrued to the local governments under consideration is being expended on infrastructural development, while > 10% is used for personnel expenditure as the cost of delivering infrastructural development by local governments in Nigeria. So, further researches can still be carried out on fiscal planning by local governments for sustainable development in the remaining local governments in Nigeria. This paper therefore recommended that the policy/decision-makers should make use of the findings of this study to help inform future decisions on fiscal planning in the local government administration in order to bring about sustainable development to the rural dwellers in the local governments. It is found that there is need for proactive measure for fiscal planning in order to sustain infrastructural development in the local government administration. Also found, is that local governments need to put in place a good fiscal planning that will sustain development at the local level.
Key words: Fiscal planning, sustainable development, local government.



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12 Local Government’s Autonomy and Effectiveness in Nigeria
Abdullahi Ayoade Ahmad
dollah_8540@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract
Local government is an intermediary player between the federal authority and the grassroots in a given society. Adequate effective local authority is an indication that governmental policies and activities are well with the people. In other words, the smooth running of a society needs to be cemented from the grassroots through adequate representation, policy formulation and implementation, and equitable distributions of resources and services. Nigeria is one of the few countries in Africa that adopted a federal system of government, a system that envisages autonomy for every sector of its authorities. Unfortunately, to suit their political agenda and interests, federal and state governments have maintained a great level of control over local authorities. This paper will investigate the level of privilege empowered on the local authorities in the Nigerian constitution to discharge their duties, and the extent to which the federal and state governments have interfered with and influenced its effectiveness.


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13         Local Governments in Nigeria: Relevance and Effectiveness in

   Poverty Reduction and Economic Development
Ito Diejomaoh (Corresponding author)
African Institute for Applied Economics
27 Nza Street, Independence Layout, Enugu
Tel: +2348059273107 E-mail: itobore@gmail.com
Prof. Eric Eboh
African Institute for Applied Economics
27 Nza Street, Independence Layout, Enugu
Tel: +2348036660475 E-mail: eceboh@yahoo.com
Abstract
This paper examines the local government system in Nigeria, its relevance and impact in poverty reduction,
economic growth and sustainable development. After a review of the local government system in Nigeria as an
example of political, fiscal and economic decentralization, it examines the nature and evolution of local government
in Nigeria as well as the roles and responsibilities of the local governments in the Nigerian context. In examining the
deficiencies of the local government system in Nigeria one of the major issues seem to be a problem of
accountability of local governments along with serious capacity issues. The paper concludes with a treatment of the
imperatives for optimising the effectiveness of local governments in Nigeria.
Keywords: Local Government, Effectiveness, Poverty Alleviation



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14 THE ROLE OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ATTAINMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS
 
INTRODUCTION/DEFINITIVES
Aristotle, the  great Greek  philosopher, who was described by Dante, the Latin poet, as the “master of those who know”, had suggested that “definition of terms (names ) is  the  beginning  of any discussion” rendered in Latin as “initio disputandi est definitio nominis”. In line  with the above glaring veracity,   the writer intends to give explication  of key terms used in this address. Before such an exercise in linguistic analysis, however, permit the writer  to declare that this paper intends, secondarily, to indicate the extent to which  the  United  Nations Millennium Development Goals  have been attained at the Local Government level of  administration in Nigeria,  the Niger Delta and  our States in  particular. However, the paper focuses more and primarily on the responsibility of the local government towards the attainment of these self-same goals.
We  thus  wish to  explicate the concept  of Local Government and to give a cursory insight into what the  goals  to be achieved  are all  about. Let us say here, that after the explication  of terms, we shall  go on to address the historicity, structure, finance and  function  of Local Government. We shall then  connect Local Government to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, mindful of what they ought to do.  If  there  are problems that can militate against  the Local Governments in their attempt  to practically address  these  goals, we shall discuss them, and thereafter make  some recommendations. To the explication of terms now we turn.

       

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15 Developing Alternative Sources of Funding Local Governments in Nigeria during Period of Global Economic Recession.


 Developing Alternative Sources of Funding Local Governments in Nigeria during Period of Global Economic Recession 1Danjuma Abdullahi Phd, 2Zakariyau Yahaya Kwanga 1College of law, government and international studies Universiti Utara, Malaysia 2Department of Public Administration Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi Abstract: The paper intends to investigate the reasons for poor performance of local governments in Nigeria as well as looking at the alternative sources of funding local governments been the level of government closer to the people but unfortunately this level of government has been subjected to serious underfunding by the other tiers of government couple with economic recession that is affecting the globe, it is clear that government alone could no longer continuo funding local governments, Nigeria is a mono-crop economy that is heavily rely on oil, any fluctuation in the oil market could definitely make a negative impacts on their allocation and affect the rate of service delivery to the people, traditionally local government allocation came directly from federal allocation but for unknown reasons the state government do hijack it and gives local government a token amount that is not even enough for the payment of their salaries, Descriptive approach was used to gather data, the findings revealed poor performance of local governments in Nigeria and the paper suggest that local government should look outward for alternative sources of revenue instead of relying on federation allocation. Key words: Local Government; Funding; Economy and Recession


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16 Efficient Financial Management for Local
Governments: The Nigerian Experience


Efficient Financial Management for Local
Governments: The Nigerian Experience
Olu Ojo
Department of Business Studies, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
Abstract
This article attempts to present the local governments’ executives with a number of options to consider as
they deal with the complex and ever changing questions of financial management for the local
community. The paper provides local government officials quick access to a framework of ideas and
suggestions that work within the hierarchy of financial management. Finance is immensely important in
the running of organizations or governments. Local governments need financial resources to carry out
their constitutional responsibilities as regards providing social services as well as mobilizing available
resources for effective rural development and good governance at the grass root level. However,
investigation revealed that local government has performed below expectations as a result of poor fund
management.
This paper which deals with efficient financial management in local governments in Nigeria was written
to articulate and discuss the instruments that will help the local government councils to manage their
funds adequately and be able to perform their statutory duties accordingly. Specifically, we discussed the
various tools and techniques of efficient financial management which could assist the local government
with performing their roles. These are as follows: the use of budget, rational approach, incremental
approach, zero-based budgeting approach, planning, programming and budgeting system, audit alarm,
and auditing approach. A thorough adoption and application of these approaches will improve financial
management of local governments in Nigeria and enhance the quality of service delivery at the grass
root.
Key words:
local government, financial management, tools of financial management, service delivery
JEL Classification:
 
 
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The full page spiral Handbook can be delivered by courier [EMS,DHL] at N5000
The soft-copy version sent into your inbox [email] ,so that you can print it out
Yourself will cost N3500.
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FOR INFO. CALL 08030485016
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 THE three-day conference on how to rediscover the local councils organized by the Association of Local Governments of Nigeria (ALGON) at Nike Lake Resort, Enugu lived up to its billings.

A The functioning of the local government system in a federalist constitution: controversies, comparisons and consensus’ by Professor Muhammed  Tawfiq Ladan of the Ahmadu  Bello University, Zaria; 

B‘The functioning of the local governments and their relationship with upper levels of government’ by Professor Assisi Asobie of the University of Nigeria, UNN; 

C“Making local government for Nigeria: Fixing the missing links’ by Professor Haruna Dlakwa of the University of Maiduguri; 

D‘Federal account dependency, insolvency and access to development funds for local governments in Nigeria’ by Dr Sampson Ebimaro;

 E‘The political, administrative and fiscal environment of local government in Nigeria, a historical analysis’ by Professor Adejo Odoh. 

F‘Local government and inter fiscal relations and transfers: the principle, process and structure’ by Professor Chikelue Ofuebe (UNN); 

G‘Local government system in Nigeria: The dangers of quasi-fiscal, political and administrative autonomy’ by Professor F C Okoli (UNN); 

H “Comparison of local government systems in selected federalist countries’ by Barr Raymond Onyegu; 
I‘ Does direct federal-local government relations undermine federalism?’ by Professor J I  Elaigwu; 
J ‘Constitutionalising local governments in Nigeria: issues and problems’ by Barr BamideleAturu

K‘MDGs: Countdown, appraisal and role of local governments in overcoming gaps and challenges’ by Dr Precious Kalamba Gbeneol (senior special assistant to the President on MDGs).